Study of Active and Fossil Hydrothermal Systems in Ijen Caldera Complex and Merubetiri Mountains, East Java

Mardhiawan Tri Susetyono, Lucas Donny Setidjadji


Ore deposits formed at subduction zone are associated with magmatism activities that are represented by volcanic activities at the surface. In the Eastern Sunda Arc, one of active volcanic activity can be found in Ijen Caldera Complex. The complex has hydrothermal volcanic manifestations with a very acidic pH. Meanwhile in the south of Ijen Complex, there is ancient volcanic complex called Merubetiri Mountains that is proven to be well-mineralized at Tumpangpitu as high sulfidation and porphyry-style mineralizations. An understanding of hydrothermal activity and volcanic landforms in active volcanic systems can be used as a powerful tool to understanding hydrothermal systems. This paper presents the distinction between active hydrothermal systems and fossil hydrothermal systems as an exploration’s tool in ancient volcanic systems. The method used in this study is remote sensing with focus on volcanic landforms, geological structures, and distribution of alteration minerals. ASTER satellite imagery, Landsat 8 satellite imagery, and DEMNAS are used in this study. ASTER and Landsat 8 images are processed with Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Direct Principle Component (DPC) methods to determine the distribution of alteration minerals that are associated with propylithic, argillic, advanced argillic, and silisic alterations. Semi-quantitative method is used to identify geological structures by automatic lineament detection. Meanwhile, qualitative method is used by manual lineaments delineation on the DEM imagery. Delineations of volcanic landforms in active and ancient volcanic complex use semi-quantitative methods include ridge lineaments and flow pattern. Then, volcanic landform is manually delineated by determining the distribution pattern of ridges, flow pattern, morphological texture, and cross-cutting relationship of volcanic products as a key in determine the eruption centers. The results show a relationship between volcanic distribution and the main stresses in the Ijen Caldera Complex with NE-SW direction, which is represented by the elliptic and elongation of volcanic depression zone, monogenetic volcano, and intrusion distribution. Geological structures that are found in the Ijen Caldera Complex show E-W and NE-SW directions. Meanwhile, Merubetiri complex shows E-W, NW-SE, and N-S structural direction patterns. The distribution of alteration minerals associated with silisic, argillic, and advance argillic in the Ijen Caldera Complex are found in the central zone of stratovolcano, intra-caldera zone, and structural zone that intersects the caldera. This shows that active hydrothermal system is related to volcanic activity and geological structures. Meanwhile, in the Merubetiri complex, alteration minerals are associated with the eruption centers, diorite/granodiorite intrusions, and NW-SE strike slip fault. The understandings of volcanic setting and volcanic landforms are very important in the early stages of exploration to determine the prospect of mineral deposits related to hydrothermal system.

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